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This is a personal Encyclopedia constructed by Life's Little Ironies (LLI's). The site brings together many varied interests and sources of information. In the version of the portal LLI's will bring together Educational and Outside interests together under and structuring it under a single portal much like an content management system. Clicking on the images below will take the user straight to that area of the wiki. Currently there are 806 articles on this wiki.

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Jason and the Argonauts

Aison son of Kretheus and Polymede daughter of Autolykos has a son called Jason. He lived in Iolkos which was ruled by Pelias. Pelias (Aison's brother) received a prophesy to beware a one sandalled man who will murder him. Pelias noticed that Jason had one sandal when he asked him to help him with a sacrifice to Poseidon Jason said that such a person should retrieve the Golden Fleece. That is what Pelias told him to do not expecting to see him again.

Jason and the Argonauts' Voyage

The tale of Jason is recounted by Pindar, Diodoros, Ovid but the best known is by Apollonios Rhodios, a librarian from BCE 261 and writes about a hero very different than those written by Homer

Jason first task is to ask Argos son of Phrixos to build a 50 oared ship, which had a speaking timber from the oak of Dodona installed by Athena. The fifty crew assembled are the greatest heroes of their time.

Jason is very good looking but his qualities of heroism take a while to come to fruition and he fails to command the respect of his crew at the beginning.

the young heroes turned their eyes towards Herakles sitting in their midst, ans with one shout they all enjoined upon him to be their leader

Herakles refuses but leaves the impression that Jason is their only only becuase Herakles turns them down. Jason is an hellestic hero and his arete is seen as his increasing effectiveness. Click here to read more

Country-Specific Advantage

See also Firm-Specific Advantage, Porter's Diamond of National Advantage and Sources of Strategic Advantage

A (Multi-National Enterprise (MNE) operating a plant in a foreign country is faced with additional costs compared to a local competitor. The additional costs could be due to (i) cultural, legal, institutional and language differences; (ii) a lack of knowledge about local market conditions; and/or (iii) the increased expense of communicating and operating at a distance.

Therefore, if a foreign firm is to be successful in another country, it must have some kind of an advantage that overcomes the costs of operating in a foreign market. Either the firm must be able to earn higher revenues, for the same costs, or have lower costs, for the same revenues, than comparable domestic firms.


Country/Firm Specific Advantage Matrix

Since only foreign firms have to pay "costs of foreignness", they must have other ways to earn either higher revenues or have lower costs in order to able to stay in business. So, if the MNE is to be profitable abroad it must have some advantages not shared by its competitors. These advantages must be (at least partly) specific to the firm and readily transferable within the firm and between countries. These advantages are called ownership or firm specific advantages (FSAs) or core competencies. The firm owns this advantage: the firm has a monopoly over its FSAs and can exploit them abroad, resulting in a higher marginal return or lower marginal cost than its competitors, and thus in more profit. These advantages are internal to a specific firm. They may be location bound advantages (i.e. related to the home country, such as monopoly control over a local resource) or non-location bound (e.g. technology, economies of scale and scope from simply being of large size).

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Caligula - Sex and Sexual Perversions


Caligula was sexually active from an early age and according to Suetonius had a strong libido which bordered on perversion. Cassius Dio is not nearly as graphical as Suetonius in his biography of Caligula but makes reference to incest, prostitution and adultery along the way. Did Suetonius sensationalize the sex for his own purposes or was it that Suetonius and Cassius Dio were writing biographies at different times in history, noting that Cassius Dio's version would be more contempreneous than Suetonius'. Other's have suggested that the sexual perversions, although they undoubtedly existed, were more of a metaphor for poor government. Called in those days Invective, it was the practice of libelling others and many prominent Romans besides Caligula were tainted by it. Earlier in his career Julius Caesar had applied to him the epithet The Queen of Bithynia. Cicero charges Publius Clodius Pulcher of incest with his sister and also charges Sextus Cloelius with performing cunnilingus on menstruating women (Dom.10.25) Sexual invective was routinely applied to important people (Seneca, Controv. 1.2.23), as if they were “so powerful that…” they were automatically imagined as trespassing all moral boundaries.Sex in the Ancient World from A-Z - J.G. Younger

Incest is one case in point. Incest was frowned against in Ancient Rome and often charges of incest were made to attack and destabilize a political opponent. Could some of the stories about Caligula be tittle-tattle? Mary Beard thinks so Of course, we can never be sure whether the tales of incest with his sisters are true (it’s hard enough to know what your neighbours get up to in the bedroom; it’s nigh on impossible to know what went on in the Roman imperial bedroom 2,000 years ago [1]. Although, some of the descriptions may have been exaggerated it is possible that he did enjoy sexual relations with his sisters, especially Drusilla and later had his other sisters banished perhaps to hush up the sexual exploits.

We should not forget that, increasingly, Caligula did not see himself like mortal men but that of a divine god. In such a frame of mind he was not subject to the same natural or criminal laws and could point to many examples in mythology where incestuous relationships existed. Even in more contemporary times the Egyptian royal families were rife with inbreeding in order to safeguard the royal Ptolemy lineage falling outside of the family. It also kept potentially warring siblings from murdering each other if they had children as a product of an incestuous sexual relationship.

The pharaohs of Egypt commonly MARRIED their full sister, and the Ptolemies of Egypt continued this custom (Montserrat 1996, 80–105; Ogden 1999). Sex in the Ancient World from A-Z - J.G. Younger

Maybe politics and history did not play as big a part in his incestuous relationships. Just possibly he had a prediliction for it. It is said that he first had sex with his sister whilst still a boy. In his position he may have had an urge and decided to satisfy it knowing that it was unlikely he would be sanctioned for it. Because of our 21st century sensibilities we find incest morally disagreeable, which may lead us to be very skeptical about his incestuous affairs but in other times we may have accepted it without much deliberation. Nevertheless proof proving or disproving incest is not and could never be available so we can make our own minds up.


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